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首页  »  SIFIC感染官微  »  “我们的双手,我们的未来”-写在2017年全球洗手日到来之前

摘要: “我们的双手,我们的未来”写在2017年全球洗手日到来之前 洗手的历史Handwashing has bee

译者:李雷雷


1.洗手的历史


Handwashing has been a central component of personal hygiene and a religious and cultural custom for many years. However, the link between handwashing and health was first made less than two centuries ago.

洗手作为个人卫生和宗教文化习俗的重要组成部分已有很多年,然而关于洗手与健康之间的关系却是两个世纪之前才首次发现。


Ignaz Semmelweis, a Hungarian doctor working in Vienna General Hospital, is known as the father of hand hygiene. In 1846, he noticed that the women giving birth in the medical student/doctor-run maternity ward in his hospital were much more likely to develop a fever and die compared to the women giving birth in the adjacent midwife-run maternity ward. He decided to investigate, seeking differences between the two wards. He noticed that doctors and medical students often visited the maternity ward directly after performing an autopsy. Based on this observation, he developed a theory that those performing autopsies got ‘cadaverous particles’ on their hands, which they then carried from the autopsy room into the maternity ward. Midwives did not conduct surgery or autopsies, so they were not exposed to these particles.

一位来自维也纳总医院匈牙利医生—Ignaz Semmelweis,被誉为手卫生之父。1846年,他偶然间发现,他所在医院里那些由医学生/医生负责的产科病房中生产的妇女要比相邻的由助产士负责的产科病房中的妇女更易出现发热和死亡。因此,他决定调查引起这两处病房不同的原因。后来,他观察到那些医生和医学生经常在做完尸检后直接进入产科病房。基于此,他提出一个理论,那些开展尸检的医生和医学生将“尸体上的颗粒物”沾到了手上,而这些颗粒物也就从尸检室带到了产科病房。而那些助产士并没有做手术或尸检,因此他们的手并没有暴露于这些颗粒物。


As a result, Semmelweis imposed a new rule mandating handwashing with chlorine for doctors. The rates of death in his maternity ward fell dramatically. This was the first proof that cleansing hands could prevent infection. However, the innovation was not popular with everyone:  some doctors were disgruntled that Semmelweis was implying that they were to blame for the deaths and they stopped washing their hands, arguing in support of the prevailing notion at that time that water was the potential cause of disease. Semmelweis tried to persuade other doctors in European hospitals of the benefits of handwashing, but to no avail.

随后,Semmelveis就制定了一条规则要求所有医生必须用含氯制剂洗手,随后他的产科病房中孕产妇的死亡率便大大下降。这是第一次有确切证据表明洗手可以预防感染。然而,这种创新性的措施并不被所有人采纳:一些医生对Semmelweis表达不满,认为他暗示那些孕产妇的死亡是由他们造成,他们拒绝洗手,声援当时另外一种主张,即引起孕产妇死亡的可能原因是水源。Semmelweis极力去说服欧洲其他医院的医生要认识到洗手的重要性,但无功而返。


A few years later in Scutari, Italy, the Crimean War brought about a new handwashing champion, Florence Nightingale. At a time when most people believed that infections were caused by foul odors called miasmas, Florence Nightingale implemented handwashing and other hygiene practices in the war hospital in which she worked. While the target of these practices was to fight the miasmas, Nightingale’s handwashing practices achieved a reduction in infections.

几年后的意大利斯库特瑞,克里米亚战争见证了一位倡导洗手的先驱的出现—弗罗伦斯·南丁格尔。当时,大部分人都认为感染是由瘴气造成,于是南丁格尔在其工作的战争医院里实施洗手和其他手卫生措施,目的是要战胜瘴气,但却令人意想不到地降低了感染的发生。


Sadly, the hand hygiene practices promoted by Semmelweis and Nightingale were not widely adopted. In general, handwashing promotion stood still for over a century. It was not until the 1980s, when a string of foodborne outbreaks and healthcare-associated infections led to public concern that the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identified hand hygiene as an important way to prevent the spread of infection. In doing so, they heralded the first nationally endorsed hand hygiene guidelines, and many more have followed.

让人失望的是,Semmelweis和南丁格尔所倡导的手卫生措施未被广泛采纳,就这样维持了约有一个世纪,直到1980年左右,一大波食源性疾病暴发和医疗服务相关感染的出现引起了公众的注意,美国CDC调查发现手卫生是预防感染传播的重要方法,因此,他们率先在全国授权发布了手卫生指南,随后其他国家也纷纷效仿。


In recent years, handwashing with soap and other forms of hand hygiene have been gaining recognition as a cost-effective, essential tool for achieving good health and nutrition. Now that its effectiveness is no longer in question, the main focus is on how to make handwashing universal. This challenge–sustained handwashing practice at key times–is being met with new thinking about behavior change, such as habit formation and nudges, increased research into the impact of hygiene, and collaboration in organizations such as the Global Handwashing Partnership.

近些年,使用肥皂洗手和其他形式的手卫生措施已经被认为是追求健康和维持营养的有效和基本的方式。既然洗手的效果已无需质疑,下一步的重点就是如何推广洗手。如何在关键时期做好洗手是大家面临的挑战,而这种挑战与对行为改变的新理念同步存在。



Everyone can promote good handwashing behavior.

每个人都可以推广良好的洗手行为!

 

2.为什么要提倡洗手?


Every year, 1.4 million children do not live to celebrate their fifth birthday because of diarrhea and pneumonia. Handwashing with soap is among the most effective and inexpensive ways to prevent these diseases. This simple behavior can save lives, cutting diarrhea by almost one-half and acute respiratory infections by nearly one-quarter. Handwashing with soap impacts not just health and nutrition, but also education, economics, and equity. We like to call this the HN3E argument. You can learn about the role handwashing plays in each of these areas by clicking the above tabs.


每年,约有140万儿童由于腹泻和肺炎而无法庆祝他们的5岁生日,使用肥皂洗手是预防这些疾病和挽救这些儿童生命最为有效和廉价的方法。这种方法可使近1/2的儿童免于腹泻,使1/4的儿童免于急性呼吸道感染。使用肥皂洗手不仅仅影响健康和营养,而且对教育、经济和公平也有长远影响,我们可以简称为“HN3E,即health,nutrition,education,economics and equity”。



3. 全球洗手日


Global Handwashing Day is an annual global advocacy day dedicated to increasing awareness and understanding about the importance of handwashing with soap as an easy, effective, and affordable way to prevent diseases and save lives.

10月15日是全球洗手日,也是每年一度的全球宣传日,旨在提高人们对洗手重要性的认识和理解,力求让更多的人清楚使用肥皂洗手是预防疾病和挽救生命的最简易、最有效和最廉价的方法。2017年全球洗手日的主题是“我们的双手,我们的未来”。


Celebrated annually on October 15, Global Handwashing Day was founded by the Global Handwashing Partnership, and is an opportunity to design, test, and replicate creative ways to encourage people to wash their hands with soap at critical times.

每年10月15日,我们都将迎来一个特殊的日子—全球洗手日,它由全球洗手伙伴组织(Global Handwashing Partnership)创建,也鼓励人们以此为契机不断创造、检验和重复新的方法,养成时刻使用肥皂洗手的习惯。


Global Handwashing Day is designed to:

  • Foster and support a global and local culture of handwashing with soap

  • Shine a spotlight on the state of handwashing around the world

  • Raise awareness about the benefits of handwashing with soap


创立全球洗手日的目的是:

  • 促进和支持将使用肥皂洗手成为全球文化和地方文化

  • 在全球范围内将洗手提到显著地位

  • 增强人们关于使用肥皂洗手的认识


The first Global Handwashing Day was held in 2008, when over 120 million children around the world washed their hands with soap in more than 70 countries. Since 2008, community and national leaders have used Global Handwashing Day to spread the word about handwashing, build sinks and tippy taps, and demonstrate the simplicity and value of clean hands.  Each year, over 200 million people are involved in celebrations in over 100 countries around the world. Global Handwashing Day is endorsed by a wide array of governments, international institutions, civil society organizations, NGOs, private companies, and individuals.

2008年,全球洗手日宣传活动首次举行,当时全球超过70个国家的1.2亿儿童使用了肥皂洗手。从2008年起,全球各地的政府和民间组织陆续通过全球洗手日传播洗手的重要性,推广建立洗手池和洗手龙头,不断展示洗手的易操作性和核心价值。每年全球超过100个国家约2亿人都参与到洗手日的庆祝活动中。全球洗手日已经被越来越多的政府、国际组织、人权组织、无国界组织、私人企业和个人所认可。

 

The 2017 Global Handwashing Day theme is “Our hands, our future!” This theme reminds us that handwashing protects our own health, but also allows us to build our own futures, as well as those of our communities, and the world. Because handwashing is an affordable, effective way to achieve these goals, by having the power to improve access to education for children, protect the health of patients and communities, and reduce inequities. Promoting the benefits and practice of handwashing with soap, as well as fostering access to and improving hygiene facilities, will help us work towards a future where that potential is realized.

2017年全球洗手日的主题是:我们的双手,我们的未来。这个主题提醒着我们:洗手可以保护我们的健康,但同时也为我们自己、我们的社会和全世界创造出更好的未来。要实现上述目标,洗手是一种廉价且有效的方法,通过使用肥皂洗手可以改善儿童受教育的机会,保护病人和社区的健康,减少不公平现象。通过推广使用肥皂洗手,以及建设和改进更多的手卫生设施,将有助于我们迈向更美好的未来。


No matter what your role, you can celebrate Global Handwashing Day. This website is the central repository for all the tools necessary to make your event a success!

今年10月15日,无论你是在学校庆祝,还是在卫生机构,还是和你的社区一起庆祝,让我们洗手,投资一个更美好的未来!如需更多信息,您也可以登录网站https://globalhandwashing.org/global-handwashing-day/https://globalhandwashing.org/

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